Engineering extracellular vesicles for ROS scavenging and tissue regeneration

Cell therapy

Stem cell therapy holds promise for tissue regeneration, yet significant challenges persist. Emerging as a safer and potentially more effective alternative, extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from stem cells exhibit remarkable abilities to activate critical signaling cascades, thereby facilitating tissue repair. EVs, nano-scale membrane vesicles, mediate intercellular communication by encapsulating a diverse cargo of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Their therapeutic potential lies in delivering cargos, activating signaling pathways, and efficiently mitigating oxidative stress-an essential aspect of overcoming limitations in stem cell-based tissue repair. This review focuses on engineering and applying EVs in tissue regeneration, emphasizing their role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathways. Additionally, we explore strategies to enhance EV therapeutic activity, including functionalization and incorporation of antioxidant defense proteins. Understanding these molecular mechanisms is crucial for optimizing EV-based regenerative therapies. Insights into EV and ROS signaling modulation pave the way for targeted and efficient regenerative therapies harnessing the potential of EVs.

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